The primary preventive approach aims to reduce the onset of a disorder in a population. Primary prevention specifically focuses on ways to stop the development of a problem before it even begins. Stepping in before the early stages of a problem, completely preventing a problem from playing out its course can be very effective and determinate of not only the lives of individuals, but of the population as a whole. Prevention campaigns in Subsaharan Africa have led to condom distribution and higher usage of condoms, which are primary forms of prevention because practicing "safe sex" will reduce the risk of transmitting HIV (avert.org). Another example of primary prevention methods occurred in China during the 1990's, when China uplifted a ban on a condom commericial. The advertising method to educate people on practicing "safe sex" will educate citizens on the transmission of HIV and STD's. With this in mind, a primary preventive approach for drug use would be to increase advertising and educational campaigns regarding the destructive effects of drugs. Specifically, educate younger generations in schools and community settings. Show children how drugs can negatively affect human life by sharing real-life testimonies of former addicts who either have recovered and are clean, or illustrate the darker side of drugs by telling true stories of the lives lost due to addiction. Framing the context of drug abuse with startling details and compelling narratives can show children and adults alike why using and/or abusing drugs can lead to destruction.
The secondary preventive approach involves detecting risks and early signs of a problem, and then addressing the issue at hand before it becomes worse. For example, in China, expectant mothers who were infected with HIV received antiretroviral therapy to prevent transmission of the virus to their future children. Another example of secondary preventive methods includes educating people who already live with HIV on how to prevent transmission to future partners. This may include targeting specific subgroups and individuals who live in areas with dense HIV rates. Another example of secondary preventive action is establishing medical testing centers so people who may suspect they have HIV can know early on. In China, nearly 15,000 medical centers provided HIV testing. A secondary example to prevent drug use and abuse would be to notice early on when people start using drugs and change their path from worsening the problem to addiction. Targeting specific neighborhoods and regions where the drug trade and drug use is particularly high, steering youth and young adults from that scene by leading them to develop their education and career paths are examples of secondary prevention.
The tertiary preventive approach comes into play when the problem persists, is not so easy to bring to a halt, and this method works more as an intervention. Antiretroviral drugs are free to people living in India. This is an example of tertiary prevention, because it addresses the fact that people already have HIV and works to treat them. In India there are clinics where people living with HIV can access counselling, nutrition education, and preventive information. Tertiary prevention with regard to drug users can include rehabilitation services, counselling, and support groups to lead them on the road to treatment and recovery. People can receive either in-patient or out-patient therapy, attend meetings with others who struggle with addiction such as Alcohlics Anonymous, as well as take up fulfilling activities to deter them from relapsing.
"HIV and AIDS" www.avert.org
"Ecology, Prevention, and Promotion." http://www.education.miami.edu/isaac/public_web/chapfour.htm